Coronavirus: Mortality-related risk factors of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 studies and 423,117 patients | BMC Infectious Diseases | Full Text

Mortality rates of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) continue to rise across the world. The impact of several risk factors on coronavirus mortality has been previously reported in several meta‐analyses limited by small sample sizes. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarize available findings on the association between comorbidities, complications, smoking status, obesity, gender, age and D-dimer, and risk of mortality from COVID-19 using a large dataset from a number of studies.
Electronic databases including Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Web of Sciences (WOS), EMBASE, Medline/PubMed, COVID-19 Research Database, and Scopus, were systematically searched till 31 August 2020. We included all human studies regardless of language, publication date or region. Forty-two studies with a total of 423,117 patients met the inclusion criteria. To pool the estimate, a mixed-effect model was used. Moreover, publication bias and sensitivity analysis were evaluated. The findings of the included studies were consistent in stating the contribution of comorbidities, gender, age, smoking status, obesity, acute kidney injury, and D-dimer as a risk factor to increase the requirement for advanced medical care. The analysis results showed that the pooled prevalence of mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 17.62% (95% CI 14.26–21.57%, 42 studies and 423,117 patients). Older age has shown increased risk of mortality due to coronavirus and the pooled odds ratio (pOR) and hazard ratio (pHR) were 2.61 (95% CI 1.75–3.47) and 1.31 (95% CI 1.11–1.51), respectively. A significant association were found between COVID-19 mortality and male (pOR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.41–1.51; pHR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.07–1.41), and current smoker (pOR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.01–1.83). Furthermore, risk of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients is highly influenced by patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, obese, cancer, acute kidney injury and increase D-dimer. Chronic comorbidities, complications, and demographic variables including acute kidney injury, COPD, diabetes, hypertension, CVD, cancer, increased D-dimer, male gender, older age, current smoker, and obesity are clinical risk factors for a fatal outcome associated with coronavirus. The findings could be used for disease’s future research, control and prevention.
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